Arteriosclerosis occurs when the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients from your heart to the rest of your body (arteries) become thick and stiff — sometimes restricting blood flow to your organs and tissues. Healthy arteries are flexible and elastic, but over time, the walls in your arteries can harden, a condition commonly called hardening of the arteries. Atherosclerosis is a specific type of arteriosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the buildup of fats, cholesterol and other substances in and on your artery walls. This buildup is called plaque. The plaque can cause your arteries to narrow, blocking blood flow. The plaque can also burst, leading to a blood clot. Although atherosclerosis is often considered a heart problem, it can affect arteries anywhere in your body. Atherosclerosis can be treated. Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent atherosclerosis.
(1) Early symptoms: including cold feeling, paleness of the affected limb, and intermittent claudication. The disease is limited to the main iliac artery, the pain occur in the hip, thigh, and may be accompanied by impotence; when the femoral popliteal artery is involved, the pain is in the calf muscles.
(2) Late symptoms: The skin temperature of the diseased limb is significantly lowered, the color is pale or cyanosis, resting pain occurs, and the distal limb suffers ischemic gangrene or ulcer. Early chronic ischemia causes nutritional changes, paresthesias and muscle atrophy of the skin and its appendages. The pulsation of the femoral, popliteal, posterior tibial and dorsal foot arteries of the diseased limb is weakened or cannot be palpated.
Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA)
Introduction to Surgery
Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, in which a balloon inside the artery inflates at the site of a fatty clog to press it against the artery walls, allows the blood to flow again. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, stenting and atherectomy are minimally invasive (endovascular) procedures that restore blood flow when arteries are clogged due to peripheral artery disease.